Ingenious Monkey has linked to two excellent talks on morality that are definitely worth a read. These are my thoughts leading from them.
The first is Jonathan Foer speaking on the morality of what we eat. He is a vegetarian, and provides a very compelling discussion on it, but takes a very inclusive point of view that I admire. His basic point is that most people care. They might make different decisions about how to change the world, but that every person who makes a conscious decision to do something good is on the same side. In this sense, people who eat free range meat are essentially the same as vegans: they are both making moral choices about how their actions will impact the world. In this sense, people who care are all on the same side. against people who do not.
His argument is mostly about the impact of choosing what we eat: in America, the food industry is so unrestricted that it’s practices would be abhorrent to everybody if they knew what was going on. In Europe the situation is somewhat different, with slightly stronger restrictions preventing the most cruel practices. However the basic point stands: most would know just by visiting a high density farm that its approach was immoral.
I find his faith in humanity somewhat comforting, and it is very reassuring to hear his stories of his grandmother in the war describing why as a homeless starving Jew scavenging for food she would still not eat pork: “If nothing matters, there’s nothing to save”. Most people would say that some thing do matter, caring for others and ourselves matters, and that is why there is a point to living.
However, it is also somewhat naive, and my main thoughts watching this were things don’t matter as much to people as they might claim. How many people would really stand by their values in the face of death? How many people will change the way they behave in order to be consistent with what they believe, rather than chaging what they believe to fit with how they live their lives? These are tough questions, but I wonder, how many of the food company employees, that see the terrible conditions on these awful farms he discusses, how many of them care ? I bet that its most of them. However, when faced between choosing whether to care about the conditions that they subject animals to, they teach themselves not to care. People are good at that. So is it really enough to appeal to people’s sense of morality, when we all know deep down that we would sacrifice most of our morals if we felt we had to.
Or perhaps I’m being too cynical: watch it and see for yourself. I guarantee that anyone who cares will find something to like in his arguments.
(As a side point, he claims that the worst thing to eat in terms of its impact on the lives of others is eggs. Even free range eggs, in America at least, are produced under the most shocking conditions. This upsets me because as a conscientious vegetarian I rely on eggs for lots of things… I need to look up what “free range” means in the UK.)
The second speaker is Sam Harris speaking at TED on why science can answer moral questions. This is an extremely important topic: I can’t emphasise enough how important this is. Essentially, he points out that on questions of moral values, we have learned to consider all societies as equal. If a country believes that women in their own country should wear a burka, we say that is fine. If they believe in corporal punishment, we say let them do it. This is despite strong opposition to these things at home – we can believe that things are wrong for some people and right for others.
Harris argues that actually, if we take a broad definition of what morality is for (to maximise the well being of conscious creatures) then there are provably right answers for what are the best set of moral values. These facts can be obtained through the application of science to the brain, and to society. For example, does corporal punishment increase the physical and mental well being of all that grow up and then live in the society, or does it not? This has a simple, “yes or no” answer that we can obtain through scientific study.
We should stop pretending that all opinions on morality are equal. Some moralities are better than others, and people who have attempted to find out the right best answers via rational scientific approaches will be better placed to judge than those who haven’t. In other words, we should stop the pandering to all cultures (including our own) and focus on making changes that are in everyone’s best interest.
Not everything is getting put up for question here. There are some issues that are genuinely different in different societies: he shows a plot of the “morality landscape” that has several maximum points on. If such differences exist they should be respected – his point is that there are some universal truths to morality and we should not pretend to be ignorent of them.
I really like his point, and it is a very important and well made one. There are however some dangers. What about when we disagree over the best thing to do? Presumably the correct answer would be to change nothing until the answer could be decided by science – but this could take hundreds of years to resolve in some cases, particularly if there was a dispute that involved claiming that the “best” thing would make life worse in one particular cluture. But without such an approach, we would be seen as imposing our own moral system onto others, which could cause more problems than it solves. Diversity is celebrated mostly because its too much trouble to try to prevent people doing what they want. Additionally, moral codes are used as identifiers: if you tell Muslims they shouldn’t force women to wear burkas, then many women may actually choose to wear them, simply to state to the world, “I am Muslim, and it is important to me”. This will reinforce the wearing of burkas and make the society less likely to permit non-wearing as acceptable. (I should say that burkas are not legally compulsory in most Muslim states – but the social implications of not wearing them vary to the point that they could be considered as effectively compulsory in some cases.)
But generally, I’m very much for this. We really do need to stop pretending that all opinions on morality are equal, because they quite simply are not. And that is not just my opinion: some moral frameworks really do result in higher well being for all than others.